Rabu, 07 Mei 2008
Selasa, 06 Mei 2008
- The threat of entry of new competitors (new entrants)
- The threat of substitutes
- The bargaining power of buyers
- The bargaining power of suppliers
- The degree of rivalry between existing competitors
Threat of New Entrants
New entrants to an industry can raise the level of competition, thereby reducing its attractiveness. The threat of new entrants largely depends on the barriers to entry. High entry barriers exist in some industries (e.g. shipbuilding) whereas other industries are very easy to enter (e.g. estate agency, restaurants). Key barriers to entry include:
- Economies of scale
- Capital / investment requirements
- Customer switching costs
- Access to industry distribution channels
- The likelihood of retaliation from existing industry players
Threat of Substitutes
The presence of substitute products can lower industry attractiveness and profitability because they limit price levels. The threat of substitute products depends on:
- Buyers' willingness to substitute-
- The relative price and performance of substitutes
- The costs of switching to substitutes
Bargaining Power of Suppliers
Suppliers are the businesses that supply materials & other products into the industry.The cost of items bought from suppliers (e.g. raw materials, components) can have a significant impact on a company's profitability. If suppliers have high bargaining power over a company, then in theory the company's industry is less attractive. The bargaining power of suppliers will be high when:
- There are many buyers and few dominant suppliers
- There are undifferentiated, highly valued products
- Suppliers threaten to integrate forward into the industry (e.g. brand manufacturers threatening to set up their own retail outlets)
- Buyers do not threaten to integrate backwards into supply
- The industry is not a key customer group to the suppliers
Bargaining Power of Buyers
Buyers are the people / organisations who create demand in an industry. The bargaining power of buyers is greater when
- There are few dominant buyers and many sellers in the industry
- Products are standardised
- Buyers threaten to integrate backward into the industry
- Suppliers do not threaten to integrate forward into the buyer's industry
- The industry is not a key supplying group for buyers
Intensity of Rivalry
The intensity of rivalry between competitors in an industry will depend on:
- The structure of competition - for example, rivalry is more intense where there are many small or equally sized competitors; rivalry is less when an industry has a clear market leader.
- The structure of industry costs - for example, industries with high fixed costs encourage competitors to fill unused capacity by price cutting.
- Degree of differentiation - industries where products are commodities (e.g. steel, coal) have greater rivalry; industries where competitors can differentiate their products have less rivalry
- Switching costs - rivalry is reduced where buyers have high switching costs - i.e. there is a significant cost associated with the decision to buy a product from an alternative supplier
- Strategic objectives - when competitors are pursuing aggressive growth strategies, rivalry is more intense. Where competitors are "milking" profits in a mature industry, the degree of rivalry is less
- Exit barriers - when barriers to leaving an industry are high (e.g. the cost of closing down factories) - then competitors tend to exhibit greater rivalry.
- Operational skills
- Privileged assets
- Growth skills
- Special relationships
Operational skills are the “core competences” that a business has which can provide the foundation for a growth strategy. For example, the business may have strong competencies in customer service; distribution, technology.
Privileged assets are those assets held by the business that are hard to replicate by competitors. For example, in a direct marketing-based business these assets might include a particularly large customer database, or a well-established brand.
Growth skills are the skills that businesses need if they are to successfully “manage” a growth strategy. These include the skills of new product development, or negotiating and integrating acquisitions.
Special relationships are those that can open up new options. For example, the business may have specially string relationships with trade bodies in the industry that can make the process of growing in export markets easier than for the competition.
The model outlines seven ways of achieving growth, which are summarised below:
Existing products to existing customers
The lowest-risk option; try to increase sales to the existing customer base; this is about increasing the frequency of purchase and maintaining customer loyalty
Existing products to new customers
Taking the existing customer base, the objective is to find entirely new products that these customers might buy, or start to provide products that existing customers currently buy from competitors
New products and services
A combination of Ansoff’s market development & diversification strategy – taking a risk by developing and marketing new products. Some of these can be sold to existing customers – who may trust the business (and its brands) to deliver; entirely new customers may need more persuasion
New delivery approaches
This option focuses on the use of distribution channels as a possible source of growth. Are there ways in which existing products and services can be sold via new or emerging channels which might boost sales?
With this method, businesses are encouraged to consider new geographic areas into which to sell their products. Geographical expansion is one of the most powerful options for growth – but also one of the most difficult.
New industry structure
This option considers the possibility of acquiring troubled competitors or consolidating the industry through a general acquisition programme
New competitive arenas
This option requires a business to think about opportunities to integrate vertically or consider whether the skills of the business could be used in other industries.
A competitive advantage is an advantage over competitors gained by offering consumers greater value, either by means of lower prices or by providing greater benefits and service that justifies higher prices.
Following on from his work analysing the competitive forces in an industry, Michael Porter suggested four "generic" business strategies that could be adopted in order to gain competitive advantage. The four strategies relate to the extent to which the scope of a businesses' activities are narrow versus broad and the extent to which a business seeks to differentiate its products.
The differentiation and cost leadership strategies seek competitive advantage in a broad range of market or industry segments. By contrast, the differentiation focus and cost focus strategies are adopted in a narrow market or industry.
Strategy - Differentiation
This strategy involves selecting one or more criteria used by buyers in a market - and then positioning the business uniquely to meet those criteria. This strategy is usually associated with charging a premium price for the product - often to reflect the higher production costs and extra value-added features provided for the consumer. Differentiation is about charging a premium price that more than covers the additional production costs, and about giving customers clear reasons to prefer the product over other, less differentiated products.
Examples of Differentiation Strategy: Mercedes cars; Bang & Olufsen
Strategy - Cost Leadership
With this strategy, the objective is to become the lowest-cost producer in the industry. Many (perhaps all) market segments in the industry are supplied with the emphasis placed minimising costs. If the achieved selling price can at least equal (or near)the average for the market, then the lowest-cost producer will (in theory) enjoy the best profits. This strategy is usually associated with large-scale businesses offering "standard" products with relatively little differentiation that are perfectly acceptable to the majority of customers. Occasionally, a low-cost leader will also discount its product to maximise sales, particularly if it has a significant cost advantage over the competition and, in doing so, it can further increase its market share.
Examples of Cost Leadership: Nissan; Tesco; Dell Computers
Strategy - Differentiation Focus
In the differentiation focus strategy, a business aims to differentiate within just one or a small number of target market segments. The special customer needs of the segment mean that there are opportunities to provide products that are clearly different from competitors who may be targeting a broader group of customers. The important issue for any business adopting this strategy is to ensure that customers really do have different needs and wants - in other words that there is a valid basis for differentiation - and that existing competitor products are not meeting those needs and wants.
Examples of Differentiation Focus: any successful niche retailers; (e.g. The Perfume Shop); or specialist holiday operator (e.g. Carrier)
Strategy - Cost Focus
Here a business seeks a lower-cost advantage in just on or a small number of market segments. The product will be basic - perhaps a similar product to the higher-priced and featured market leader, but acceptable to sufficient consumers. Such products are often called "me-too's".
Examples of Cost Focus: Many smaller retailers featuring own-label or discounted label products.
Jumat, 02 Mei 2008
- Analyse its current business portfolio and decide which businesses should receive more or less investment.
- Develop growth strategies for adding new products and businesses to the portfolio, whilst at the same time deciding when products and businesses should no longer be retained.
- Market Size
- Market growth
- Market profitability
- Pricing trends
- Competitive intensity / rivalry
- Overall risk of returns in the industry
- Opportunity to differentiate products and services
- Distribution structure (e.g. retail, direct, wholesale)
Factors that Affect Competitive Strength
Factors to consider include:
- Strength of assets and competencies
- Relative brand strength
- Market share
- Customer loyalty
- Relative cost position (cost structure compared with competitors)
- Distribution strength
- Record of technological or other innovation
- Access to financial and other investment resources
SWOT analysis is an important tool for auditing the overall strategic position of a business and its environment.
The business portfolio is the collection of businesses and products that make up the company. The best business portfolio is one that fits the company's strengths and helps exploit the most attractive opportunities.
The company must:
(1) Analyse its current business portfolio and decide which businesses should receive more or less investment, and
(2) Develop growth strategies for adding new products and businesses to the portfolio, whilst at the same time deciding when products and businesses should no longer be retained.
Methods of Portfolio Planning
The two best-known portfolio planning methods are from the Boston Consulting Group (the subject of this revision note) and by General Electric/Shell. In each method, the first step is to identify the various Strategic Business Units ("SBU's") in a company portfolio. An SBU is a unit of the company that has a separate mission and objectives and that can be planned independently from the other businesses. An SBU can be a company division, a product line or even individual brands - it all depends on how the company is organised.
Using the BCG Box (an example is illustrated above) a company classifies all its SBU's according to two dimensions:
On the horizontal axis: relative market share - this serves as a measure of SBU strength in the market
On the vertical axis: market growth rate - this provides a measure of market attractiveness
By dividing the matrix into four areas, four types of SBU can be distinguished:
Stars - Stars are high growth businesses or products competing in markets where they are relatively strong compared with the competition. Often they need heavy investment to sustain their growth. Eventually their growth will slow and, assuming they maintain their relative market share, will become cash cows.
Cash Cows - Cash cows are low-growth businesses or products with a relatively high market share. These are mature, successful businesses with relatively little need for investment. They need to be managed for continued profit - so that they continue to generate the strong cash flows that the company needs for its Stars.
Question marks - Question marks are businesses or products with low market share but which operate in higher growth markets. This suggests that they have potential, but may require substantial investment in order to grow market share at the expense of more powerful competitors. Management have to think hard about "question marks" - which ones should they invest in? Which ones should they allow to fail or shrink?
Dogs - Unsurprisingly, the term "dogs" refers to businesses or products that have low relative share in unattractive, low-growth markets. Dogs may generate enough cash to break-even, but they are rarely, if ever, worth investing in.
Using the BCG Box to determine strategy
Once a company has classified its SBU's, it must decide what to do with them. In the diagram above, the company has one large cash cow (the size of the circle is proportional to the SBU's sales), a large dog and two, smaller stars and question marks.
Conventional strategic thinking suggests there are four possible strategies for each SBU:
- Build Share: here the company can invest to increase market share (for example turning a "question mark" into a star)
- Hold: here the company invests just enough to keep the SBU in its present position
- Harvest: here the company reduces the amount of investment in order to maximise the short-term cash flows and profits from the SBU. This may have the effect of turning Stars into Cash Cows.
- Divest: the company can divest the SBU by phasing it out or selling it - in order to use the resources elsewhere (e.g. investing in the more promising "question marks").
Kamis, 01 Mei 2008
- Maintain or increase the market share of current products – this can be achieved by a combination of competitive pricing strategies, advertising, sales promotion and perhaps more resources dedicated to personal selling.
- Secure dominance of growth markets.
- Restructure a mature market by driving out competitors; this would require a much more aggressive promotional campaign, supported by a pricing strategy designed to make the market unattractive for competitors.
- Increase usage by existing customers – for example by introducing loyalty schemesA market penetration marketing strategy is very much about “business as usual”. The business is focusing on markets and products it knows well. It is likely to have good information on competitors and on customer needs. It is unlikely, therefore, that this strategy will require much investment in new market research.
Market development is the name given to a growth strategy where the business seeks to sell its existing products into new markets. There are many possible ways of approaching this strategy, including:
- New geographical markets; for example exporting the product to a new country
- New product dimensions or packaging
- New distribution channels
- Different pricing policies to attract different customers or create new market segments
Product development is the name given to a growth strategy where a business aims to introduce new products into existing markets. This strategy may require the development of new competencies and requires the business to develop modified products which can appeal to existing markets.
Diversification is the name given to the growth strategy where a business markets new products in new markets.
This is an inherently more risk strategy because the business is moving into markets in which it has little or no experience.
For a business to adopt a diversification strategy, therefore, it must have a clear idea about what it expects to gain from the strategy and an honest assessment of the risks.
Johnson and Scholes (Exploring Corporate Strategy) define strategy as follows:
"Strategy is the direction and scope of an organisation over the long-term: which achieves advantage for the organisation through its configuration of resources within a challenging environment, to meet the needs of markets and to fulfil stakeholder expectations".
In other words strategy is about:
- Where is the business trying to get to in the long-term (direction),
- Which markets should a business compete in and what kind of activities are involved in such markets? (markets; scope)
- How can the business perform better than the competition in those markets? (advantage)?
- What resources (skills, assets, finance, relationships, technical competence, facilities) are required in order to be able to compete? (resources)?
- What external, environmental factors affect the businesses' ability to compete? (environment)? What are the values and expectations of those who have power in and around the business? (stakeholders)
STRATEGY AT DIFFERENT LEVELS OF A BUSINESS
Strategies exist at several levels in any organisation - ranging from the overall business (or group of businesses) through to individuals working in it.
Corporate Strategy - is concerned with the overall purpose and scope of the business to meet stakeholder expectations. This is a crucial level since it is heavily influenced by investors in the business and acts to guide strategic decision-making throughout the business. Corporate strategy is often stated explicitly in a "mission statement".
Business Unit Strategy - is concerned more with how a business competes successfully in a particular market. It concerns strategic decisions about choice of products, meeting needs of customers, gaining advantage over competitors, exploiting or creating new opportunities etc.
Operational Strategy - is concerned with how each part of the business is organised to deliver the corporate and business-unit level strategic direction. Operational strategy therefore focuses on issues of resources, processes, people etc.
HOW STRATEGY IS MANAGED - STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT
In its broadest sense, strategic management is about taking "strategic decisions" - decisions that answer the questions above.
In practice, a thorough strategic management process has three main components, shown in the figure below:
This is all about the analysing the strength of businesses' position and understanding the important external factors that may influence that position. The process of Strategic Analysis can be assisted by a number of tools, including:
- PEST Analysis - a technique for understanding the "environment" in which a business operates
- Scenario Planning - a technique that builds various plausible views of possible futures for a business
- Five Forces Analysis - a technique for identifying the forces which affect the level of competition in an industry
- Market Segmentation - a technique which seeks to identify similarities and differences between groups of customers or users
- Directional Policy Matrix - a technique which summarises the competitive strength of a businesses operations in specific markets
- Competitor Analysis - a wide range of techniques and analysis that seeks to summarise a businesses' overall competitive position
- Critical Success Factor Analysis - a technique to identify those areas in which a business must outperform the competition in order to succeed
- SWOT Analysis - a useful summary technique for summarising the key issues arising from an assessment of a businesses "internal" position and "external" environmental influences.
This process involves understanding the nature of stakeholder expectations (the "ground rules"), identifying strategic options, and then evaluating and selecting strategic options.
Often the hardest part. When a strategy has been analysed and selected, the task is then to translate it into organisational action.
Senin, 28 April 2008
- Graduated from Government University of Accountancy.
- He has joined the Government Institution Finance Superintendent Development for North Sumatra for more than 3 years
- Joined The Government Institution Finance Superintendent Development for Tax and Earn Optimalisation in Head Office in Jakarta for more than 10 years.
- Audit and Tax Manager in Public Accountant Paul Lembong, Jamaludin and Associate for more than 4 years.
- Setting up by owned Public Accountant Wijanarko and Associate
MARIA BAKARY, President Director
- She has been working for more than 25th years in the area of Marketing Research and handling various project.
- She has experienced in Marketing Research Specialing in Quantitative and Qualitative.
She worked for AC Nielsen-Indonesia till retired.
- She has been working in the area of Customised Research, data Collection, Operation of Retail Audit, Media, Including Coding and data entry Departement
REIZA SOEDJANA, Commercial Director
- He has been working for more than 17th years with multinational companies (FMCG).
- He has experience covers wide range of markets, from Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG) and consumer banking.
- The scope of work mostly deal with: sales, marketing, distribution, merchandising, promotion and market development.
- He has strength in people management, working in most Indonesian area.
- Obtained his Bachelor’s Degree overseas
REFRINAL, Senior operation Manager
- He has graduated from Bogor Agriculture Institute Master Majoring in Strategic Management / Business Plan and Statistic.
- He has been written many articles in Indonesia Manager Club and Professional Entrepreneurship Club such as Sales Marketing, Fenomena Market Leader Vs Market Follower, Measurement Sustainable Brand of Indonesia Idol and many things.
- He has had several project Research and Lecturer Quick Start Foundation, Institute & Research, Pocari Sweat, Logic Management & Consultant Bogor, IDB Project in Kendari, Tazkia Business School & Polytechnic KENT Bogor and so forth.
- He become keynote and speaker in various seminar such as Toward to Sustainable Competitive Advantage by Profec, Integrated Marketing for BMT by Permodalan National Madani Tbk, Pertarungan Sengit dalam pasar minuman Isotonik by PT.Amerta Indah Otsuka, Macro Business Review, Architecture Bank of Indonesia and Good Corporate Governance by BRI College Jakarta.
ATYANTO SAKSONO, Finance and General Affairs Manager
- Atyanto has experience in banking industry and marketing research company since 1995
- He has proven his capabilities in managing the financial, accounting dan general affair.
- He has ability and expert in finacial ratio analysis, SPACE and others
MUHAMMAD HAKIM, Field Manager
MUHAMMAD HAKIM, Field Manager
- Hakim has experience in Marketing Research since 2000.
- Hakim has proven his capabilities in managing the field force and maintaining good relationship with a nationwide field team.
- Previously, as A Branch Head for West Java areas.
YUNUS RIZAL, Head Data Processing & Analyst
YUNUS RIZAL, Head Data Processing & Analyst
- Yunus has experience in Marketing Data Processing and Analyst since 2000.
- Since 2001 he has been handled various Data Processing and Analyst such as Competitive Research, Marketing Research, New Product Development in FMCG.
- Yunus also has experience in some area of data Information such in raw data (ASCII, SPSS) and Advance Analysis.
- Alex has experience in Data Processing and Programmer since 1998.
- Since 1999 he has handled various data processing and programmer as marketing research.
- Alex also has experience in some area of data information such in raw data (ASCII, SPSS) and data tabulation.
SRI BUDAYATI, Field Coordinator
- Sri has experience in Marketing Research since 1995.
- Sri has proven his capabilities in coordinating the field force and maintaining good relationship with a nationwide field team.
- Previously, as a supervisor and field coordinator for some area.
KOMARIAH HILMAN, Field Coordinator
- Hilman has experience in Marketing Research since 2002.
- Hilman has proven his capabilities in coordinating the field force and maintaining good relationship with a nationwide field team.
- Previously, as a field supervisor and field coordinator for some area.
MASKURI, Support Staff
- Maskuri has big contribution to support all activity in Field Survey Indonesia.
FSI menawarkan bentuk kerjasama yang menguntungkan dengan mengedepankan kualitas riset dan memantau implementasi dari hasil-hasil riset di lapangan, yang mendukung visi, misi tujuan perusahaan/organisasi client. Sebagai wujud dari tanggung jawab atas kualitas, pada setiap aktivitas riset,
FSI akan mengundang perwakilan perusahaan menjadi anggota tim riset kami, yang akan mengawasi sejak proses survey berlangsung, Penginputan Data, hingga Analysis Data. Pada proses lanjut, kami akan bersinergi dengan client membentuk aliansi strategi dalam bidang riset yang akan mengantarkan perusahaan anda menuju keunggulan bersaing yang berkelanjutan (Sustainable Competitif Advantage).
FSI dengan senang hati akan menerima tawaran kerjasama dan mendiskusikan bentuk kerjasama riset yang lebih fokus dengan client. Dan kami dengan senang hati akan mempresentasikan ide-ide riset kami dengan client.
- Sample acquisition (Random and Quota sampling)
- Hall test and Mall intercept
- Door-to-door or Home Interviews
- Face-to-face Interviews in site
- Executive interviews
- Mystery Shopper
- Business to Business (B2B)
- Validation service
- Pre-Recruit and recruit for Focus Groups,
- Interviews (Face-to-face)
- Transcription and note taking
- Qualitative Depth Interviews
- Full data processing service
- Coding and punching
- Custom programming
- Cross tabulations
- File conversions.
- All Statistical analysis base on SPSS (Basic analysis, Biplot analysis, Corespondence analysis, Perceptual mapping analysis, Sensory product analysis, etc)
- Structural Equation Model (SEM)
- Strategic Analysis (Competitive industry analysis, Internal Factor Evaluation (IFE) analysis, External factor evaluation (EFE) analysis, Competitive profile analysis, Internal External (IE) analysis, SWOT analysis, SPACE analysis, Boston consultative group (BCG) analysis, General electric (GE analysis), Quantitative strategic planning (QSP) analysis, etc
FSI sangat berkepentingan dan akan membantu proses pengimplementasian hasil-hasil riset, yang akan mengantarkan setiap organisasi/perusahaan siap bertahan dan memenangkan kompetisi/persaingan yang berkelanjutan (sustainable competitive advantadge). Untuk itu FSI sangat mengerti dan menjamin penuh kerahasiaan sebuah data riset dengan perjanjian tertulis. Setiap client bagi FSI adalah Exclusive dan special, sehingga kami sangat commit untuk selalu memperbaiki kualitas kinerja terutama dalam manajemen pengelolaan data.
FSI Didukung oleh sumberdaya manusia yang unggul, dengan latar belakang pendidikan dan sangat berpengalaman sebagai praktisi riset di perusahaan-perusahaan terkemuka baik pemerintah maupun asing, dan berpengalaman melakukan riset-riset di berbagai perusahaan dan lembaga pemerintah. Dengan ketajaman nalar yang terlatih dan terasah oleh pengalaman dan pengetahuan, kami akan mengumpulkan setiap fakta yang diperlukan di lapangan, dan mengubah data itu menjadi fakta. Pada tahap lanjut data-data yang terkumpul akan ditransormasuikan menjadi informasi yang menjadi landasan berpijak bagi perusahaan untuk mengambil kebijakkan berdasarkan pengetahuan (wisdom base on knowledge) sehingga menjamin setiap pengambilan keputusan didasarkan oleh fakta yang komprehensif.
FSI memiliki jaringan yang luas di lima pulau utama di Indonesia (Sumatera, Jawa, Bali, Lombok, Kalimantan dan Sulawesi) dan hampir semua kota besar di Indonesia, diantaranya Medan, padang, Pekanbaru, Jambi, Bengkulu, Palembang, Lampung, Bandung, Banten, Sukabumi, Garut, Tasikmalaya, Cirebon, Semarang, Magelang, Salatiga, Pekalongan, Tegal, Solo, Purwekerto, Cilacap, Surabaya, Kediri, Madiun, Malang, Jember, Jogjakarta, Pontianak, Balikpapan, Samarinda, Banjarmasin, Manado, Gorontalo dan Makassar. Selain kota diatas FSI senantiasa siap melakukan riset di kota-kota kecil selain disebutkan diatas berdasarkan permintaan client. Adapun ragam riset yang telah dipersiapkan untuk kepentingan client, mencakup field work dan desk research (data sensus, dll).
Menjadi lembaga riset terkemuka dengan spesialisasi pada aktivitas lapang (field work activitiy) yang berorientasi menghasilkan data yang akurat, terpercaya dan berkualitas tinggi.
- Menjalin hubungan jangka panjang (long-term relationship) dengan organisasi pemerintah/swasta, melalui kerjasama riset.
- Menjadi partner strategis (partnership strategic) bagi perusahaan atau lembaga atau perseorangan untuk memberikan dukungan (supporting) bagi keberlanjutan (sustainability) bisnis maupun program-program yang telah berjalan, sedang berjalan dan akan datang dengan kuatitas tinggi dan menjadi asset bagi sebuahy kemajuan yang berkelanjutan.
- Membentuk aliansi strategi (strategic alliances) yang bermartabat dengan setiap lembaga, mengedepankan kualitas kerjasama yang saling menguntungkan, dengan mengutamakan kepuasan klien (client satisfaction).
- Secara berkelanjutan melakukan proses kaji ulang (improve) terhadap kinerja lembaga FSI secara terus menerus, sehingga memberi kontribusi yang tak terbatas bagi pelanggan dan meningkatkan kerjasama dan membentuk Networking Organizations.
- Secara meyakinkan menjadikan segala bentuk kerjasama pada tingkatan yang terintegrasi secara vertikal (vertical integrations) yang bermasa depan, bermartabat, berwawasan, berkelanjutan, beretika dan saling menguntungkan. Kejujuran (Honestly)
NILAI - NILAI
- Tanggung Jawab (Responsibility)
- Kualitas (Quality)
- Integritas (Integrity)
- Komitmen (Commitment)
- Kerjasama (Partnership)
- Hubungan (Relationship)
- Jejaringan (Networking)
- Kepuasan Pelanggan (Customer Satisfactions)